'Who Shoots First Wins': Russian Submarines Receive Advanced 'Duel' Torpedoes
18:06 12.07.2017(updated 18:08 12.07.2017)
Russia’s nuclear-powered Borei- and Yasen-class submarines will be capable of hitting a target from any depth, before being detected by the enemy. The submarines will be armed with the UGST modernized thermal torpedo known as Fizik-2.
Despite the fact that the technical specifications of the new weapons are kept secret, it is reported that the torpedo outperforms the Mk 48 Mod 7 Spiral torpedo of the United States Navy, in terms of noise level, velocity and hitting range. The Fizik-2 can travel 10 km longer than its American analogue and hit any type of target, including submarines and aircraft carriers.
The torpedo was developed by Research & Design Institute "Morteplotekhnika," a part of Tactical Missiles Corp.
One of its engineers Alexei Grigoryev told the Russian newspaper Izvestia that the new torpedo has already entered service with the Russian Naval Force.
"In the long run the torpedo will replace all electric-propelled torpedoes with the Russian Navy," Grigoryev said.
The Fizik-2 is a so-called duel torpedo. It has a length of 7.2 meters. It has a flattened nose cone and control surfaces. However the main feature of the UGST torpedo is an axial internal-combustion engine which has its pistons moving parallel to the shaft.
The Fizik-2 uses a water jet instead of a propeller. This allows for reducing noise and increasing its maximum speed, up to 60 knots (over 110 kph).
According to Vadim Kozyulin, a professor at the Russian Academy of Military Sciences, the US Navy no longer uses electric-propelled torpedoes.
"Currently, the main torpedo of the US Navy is the Mk 48 heated torpedo. It is powered by an internal-combustion engine. This allows for higher speeds and a larger traveling range. Until recently, Russia did not have such a torpedo suitable for a 533-mm launcher," Kozyulin told Izvestia.
According to the expert, modern torpedo combat is like a "knife fight in a telephone box."
"Who shoots first wins," Kozyulin said, adding that the Fizik-2 torpedo gives the Russian Navy a serious advantage over its potential rivals.
Unlike its predecessors, the Fizik-2 can be launched from a depth of up to 500 meters, which is nearly the critical operational depth for modern nuclear submarines. The torpedo has pullout control surfaces, which pop up right after the launch. Such a design allows for reducing noise and providing a greater maneuverability.
The Fizik-2 acquires a target with the use of a dual-channel target seeker. It is based on an active-passive hydroacoustic system capable of detecting the target’s wake at a distance of 1.2-2.5 km. The torpedo has a hitting range of up to 50 km and can carry a warhead of up to 300 kilograms.
UNIVERSAL DEEP-WATER HOMING TORPEDO UGST
First torpedo UGST demonstrated in 2003 in the seaside cabin IMDS-2003 in St. Petersburg. Moreover, when a torpedo like the first time publicly present a wide range of experts, because of some problems with special services UGST on the second day to hide from spectators, wrapped it in a carpet and rewinding the tape. 533-mm torpedo UGST equipped with a warhead weighing 300 kilograms and is designed to destroy warships and submarines at a distance of 50 kilometers. The torpedo is equipped with a combination of acoustic homing system also allowed remote control (from a board of the submarine).
Power plant torpedo UGST based on the axial piston motor ADF Development Research Institute "Morteplotehnika" 1995. Engine feature - a rotating combustion chamber in which fuel is supplied to a high-pressure plunger pump under pressure up to 35 MPa. It uses established liquid monopropellant. The starting powder charge that is placed in the combustion chamber, allows to rapidly increase the power that along with high performance engine is important in the initial portion of movement of the torpedo. In the engine as in the torpedo generally applied modern technologies improve vibroacoustic characteristics, thereby reducing the external noise to the required level of the torpedo and provided optimal conditions homing operation.
For similar torpedoes intended UGST in SRI "Morteplotehnika" created thermal propulsion SCC-53 system for universal torpedo caliber of 533 mm.
Caliber RTD, mm: 533
TPN Length, mm: 4100 ... 5500
TPN Weight kg to 1400
Engine Type TPS: turbine
of open cycle
Maximum TPN engine power kV, up to: 800
Type propulsor TPN: the jet
fuel composition TPN: liquid fuel type Otto-fuel; Otto-fuel + oxidizer NAR
Quiet water jets UGST directly without gearbox connected to the engine. Hydrodynamic circuit UGST distinguish biplanar rudders. Retractable for bypass torpedo after it emerges from the torpedo tubes. This scheme reduces the noise of the torpedo. Structure tail part provides an interface to the carrier placement na¬vesnyh telecontrol systems and data entry.
High torpedo "Physicist-1" (product 2534) and the advanced version "Physicist-2" or "Physicist-2000" (name of export UGST-M) have been created for the Russian Navy using UGST developments of the torpedo. At the end of 2014 after the successful completion of state tests was adopted by a new deep-sea thermal homing torpedo "Physicist". This torpedo will be rearmed with all submarine of project 955 "Borey", 885 "Ash", as well as their modifications. Other submarines of the Russian Navy will be rearmed with an increase in the release of data torpedoes. Series production is planned to establish a new torpedoes at the "Dagdizel". For these purposes in 2015 will be allocated 1 billion rubles, according to the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Investment Dagestan.
Caliber mm 533 - 534.4
Length, mm 7200 (6100)
Weight, kg: 1980 - 2200 (1680)
Weight of explosives, however, kg: 300
- 1 mode: 50
- 2-Mode : 30 - 35
Range of stroke, m: 50000 - 60000 (40000)
depth of stroke, m: up to 500
shooting depth with submarines, m: up to 400
Radius response CLO km:
- on submarines: 2.5
- NDT: 1.2
indication time wakefield NK track, from: 350
Length of wire telecontrol km:
- torpedo coil 25
- towable coil 5
Range fuse, m:
- on the FL 2
- NDT: 6 - 8
Translated by Google - A.V.Karpenko, MTC "Nevsky Bastion" 04.18.2015
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